Some of us advanced the proposition that student records should be thought of as records that the institution holds in trust for the student. We said that if we proceed from that premise, then the institution should reveal information in its records only when the student consented.
Flemming, A. S. (1967). Confidentiality and educational information. In J. W. Loughary and M. Tondow (Eds.), Educational information system requirements: The next two decades, (pp. 120–129). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, College of Education.